INTRODUCTIONSierra Leone is bounded on the north-west, north and north-east by the Republic Guinea, on the south-east by the Republic of Liberia and on south-west by the Atlantic Ocean. It has an space of 27,925 sq. miles. The colony of Sierra Leone originated within the sale and cession in 1787 by native chiefs to English settlers of a bit of land meant as a house for African settlers who had been waifs in London and later it was used as a settlement for freed African slaves. The hinterland was declared a British Protectorate on 21st August, 1896. Sierra Leone attained independence on 27th April, 1961 and have become a Republic in 1971. Schooling is supplied by each non-public and state-sponsored faculties. The present system of training is 6-3-4-4 (that’s six years Major college, three years Junior Secondary College, 4 years Senior Secondary College and 4 years tertiary/larger training. This technique is complemented by non- formal training.CONCEPT OF EDUCATIONEducation is steadily used within the sense of instruction within the classroom, laboratory, workshop or home science room and consists principally within the imparting by the trainer, and the acquisition by pupils, of data and psychological in addition to guide expertise. A wider which means than instruction is that of education. That’s to say all that goes on inside the college as a part of the pupil’s life there. It consists of, amongst different issues, relationship between pupils and academics, pupils and pupils each in and out of doors the varsity. J. S. Mill (1931) opined that no matter helps to form the human being; to make the person what he’s or hinder him from being what he’s not is a part of his training. Implicitly training is lifelong and ubiquitous; it’s the sum whole of all influences which go to make an individual what he’s, from beginning to dying. It consists of the house, our neighbors, and the road amongst others.Schooling is to some extent a deliberate deliberate course of devised and performed by the educator with the aim of imbuing the learner with sure info, expertise, of thoughts and physique in addition to modes of conduct thought-about fascinating. Partially it’s the learner’s personal response to the surroundings wherein he lives. Schooling has three focal factors: the person/individual upon whom the educator’s influences are delivered to bear; the society or neighborhood to which he belongs; and the entire context of actuality inside which the person and society play their half. Man is a social creature; he grows as an individual via the affect of character on character; and even for his fundamental bodily wants he depends upon the assistance and cooperation of his fellow women and men. With out society and the mutual help and enrichment of experiences which it offers civilization is unimaginable and the lifetime of man, in Hobbes’ phrases, is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short.”One of many basic information of human existence is the stress between the pull of the previous and the ahead urge into the long run, between stability and alter, custom and innovation. For efficient dwelling,man wants a circle of safety, an space of established habits and relationship which varieties reliable relationships. That is additionally true of society. For its efficient functioning there have to be an underlying continuity of traditions and outlook which preserves its id as a society and safeguards it in opposition to the disruptive results of change. Change have to be for all times and never static however this transformation in flip have to be managed by the fundamental traditions of society. It’s custom which provides a nation its character and distinctiveness as a society. The conservation of custom subsequently is clearly essential.It has been acknowledged from time immemorial that the conservation of conventional training has an important half to play within the growth of the kid. The kids of right now are the adults of tomorrow; they have to be skilled subsequently, to inherit and perpetuate the beliefs and modes of life peculiar to the actual society to which they belong. For each society has the will to protect itself not solely bodily however as neighborhood consciously sharing sure goals, beliefs and patterns of conduct. One of these training shouldn’t be essentially formal in faculties by way of classroom instruction however that effected not directly via the household and thru the affect on the person of social influences and customs which the kid can’t evade. In Sierra Leone this social training included elaborate ceremonies of initiation involving feats of endurance wherein younger women and men should show themselves worthy of the neighborhood. The final word aim was to provide a person who was trustworthy, respectful, expert, cooperative, and who might conform to the social order of the day. As Aristotle as soon as acknowledged “the constitution of a state will suffer if education is neglected. The citizens of a state should always be educated to suit the constitution of the state. The type of character appropriate to a constitution is the power which continues to sustain it as it is also the state force which originally created it” (p. I).TRADITIONAL EDUCATION IN SOCIETYTraditional training has each a artistic and conservation operate in society; it’s a highly effective technique of preserving a society’s customs, if not tradition. Prior to now the character and wishes of society performed an important half in figuring out the character of training. Professor M.V.C. Jeffreys (1950) as soon as wrote in his e book, Glaucon, that “in a tranquil society the educational system will tend to reflect the social pattern, while social uneasiness and instability create opportunity for using education as an instrument of social change”(p.7). An analogous view was shared by John Dewey (1897) who opined that via training society can formulate its personal functions, can set up its personal means and sources and thus save itself with definiteness and economic system within the path wherein it needs to maneuver. Schooling seems each to the previous and the long run; inevitably it displays the traditions and character of society. Conventional training can be utilized to arrange for modifications in society and anticipate and stop modifications or the consequences of modifications in society.Conventional training conserves and palms on the customs and methods of life which represent the character of a society and maintains its unity. It additionally helps society to interpret its features in new methods to fulfill the challenges of change, looking for methods or traces of growth that are according to the traditions and customs and can on the identical time elevate society to a extra full success of itself.
TRADITIONAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN SIERRA LEONEHistory reveals that there have been no formal faculties the place youngsters had been educated in Pre-colonial Sierra Leone. The Poro and Bondo/Sande Secret Societies had been appeared upon as establishments to coach youngsters. They had been bush faculties. And the training these bush faculties supplied was casual. Kids who went via these secret societies had been thought-about able to finishing up their civic duties. They grew to become adults and may marry and begin life. They thought-about themselves as one household. In different phrases each Secret Societies created a way of comradeship and unity amongst members no matter household, clan or ethnic affiliation. It was subsequently thought-about that youngsters who had not gone via these secret societies weren’t absolutely matured.The Poro Secret Society is for boys. The non secular head of the Poro Society is Pa Gbonu, seen solely by the older graduates or members. The bodily heads are the Pa Sama Yorgbors and Pa Somanos. They direct the actions of the establishment. The senior instructors are the Pa Kashis, who typically educate and provides directions to different initiators. The Pa Manchiyas function academics to the initiates whereas the Kachemas are the scaring spirits. They scare the ladies and kids alike along with the brand new initiates. The Rakas are the errand boys carrying messages round. The Yambas are the top boys. The Bomos are the senior prefects whereas the Sayboms are the prefects; and the screens are the Gbanaboms. Casual courses are held within the Secret Poro Bush. The topics taught embrace Artistic Sensible Arts, Performing Arts, Sensible Agriculture, Drugs i.e. use of native herbs for the therapy of various illnesses), warfare and different expertise. In Artistic Sensible Arts initiates are taught learn how to make fishing nets, baskets, mats, and carving wooden and cleaning soap stones into totally different objects similar to animals and people; in Performing Arts initiates are taught singing, dancing and the usage of Poro musical devices. In Sensible Agriculture initiates follow farming. Boys are taught to bear hardship with out criticism and develop accustomed to it. Thus they’re taken to the farms of their academics and elders to work on professional bono foundation. Nevertheless throughout the harvest season initiates might go via these farms taking no matter they want and eat with out being questioned by farm house owners. Initiates are taught to respect elders and use of weapons to kill animals. In an analogous vein initiates are taught learn how to use weapons in combating in protection of their communities. Different expertise initiates are taught embrace making fish traps, fishing and searching internet, and basketry. In the usage of herbs initiates pay cash (some freely given) for therapeutic varied sicknesses in addition to for cover in opposition to enemies, evil spirits and snake bites. Initiates who wish to trigger hurt to others utilizing herbs might ‘redeem’ the herb/drugs involved. Over all initiates are taught a brand new Language spoken solely by members known as Ke Sornor. For instance fonka trika which means I’m speaking to you; fonka bonomi which means Discuss to me. The usage of this new Language makes graduates very proud and really feel totally different from non-initiates. Graduates come out with new names similar to Lamp, Langba and Kolerr. A commencement ceremony climaxes the occasion.Dad and mom make huge preparations together with stitching clothes for the graduates. To mark the commencement ceremony there may be feasting, consuming, dancing and singing reward songs for the graduates and their dad and mom. These certified for initiation will need to have been circumcised and grown to age of puberty. They need to stay on their very own throughout the interval of coaching which ranges from one to seven years. Graduates are absolutely admitted to the overall Poro society via one other ceremony known as Enkorie, which lasts for 4 days.The Bondo/Sande Society is the establishment the place women are skilled for womanhood. Its non secular head is Na Bondigba. The Na Gboyamas and Na Wulus are the bodily heads. These have non secular powers used to predict the long run and catch witches. They’re the senior academics. The Na Sokos are the service academics. They’ll provoke women even as much as the superior stage of the Society. The Digbas are the overall academics and keep near the initiates. The Sampas are the skillful dancers and errand women/girls. They make bulletins concerning the progress and actions or packages throughout the commencement ceremony.The Na Fets, because the identify implies have no idea all of the secrecy of the establishment. They carry the institutional implements and regalia. The Karr Ayeamus are the ‘waiters’ to be initiated into the upper standing of the establishment. Women admitted to the Bondo/Sande Society are skilled informally. Courses are held at Kantha or sacred dwelling. The academics are largely involved with the transmission to those adolescent women the abilities and information which grownup girls are anticipated to own with a view to operate correctly and intelligently of their neighborhood. The topics women are taught embrace Cooking, Performing Arts, Fishing, Husband and Little one Care, and House Administration. In Cooking women are taught learn how to put together meals via commentary and participation within the preparation of assorted dishes and are later allowed to have a go along with little or no supervision. Those that couldn’t cook dinner correctly are allowed to repeat. In Performing Arts women are taught learn how to compose and sing songs and learn how to beat the Bondo/Sande drums (sambories). Alongside singing women are taught learn how to dance and people who dance nicely might be part of the hierarchy of the Sampas. Women are additionally taught learn how to fishing, make fishing nets, fishing baskets, sleeping mats from bamboo and palm leaves. Additional women are taught learn how to assist their potential husbands and learn how to maintain youngsters particularly these of senior members. Just like the Poro Society commencement ceremonies are marked by huge preparations. Each dad and mom and potential husbands would purchase new clothes, slippers, perfumes, powder, and beads to make neck laces. On the day of the commencement ceremony the brand new initiates are arrayed in white with coronets. They arrive out with new names similar to Burah, Yeanor, Rukor and Yainkain. This demonstrates an indication of maturity. Initiating women into Bondo/Sande society lasts between a number of months and three years.CHALLENGESIf training has the important operate of perpetuating the traditions and values of society, of adapting them to a altering surroundings, and of elevating them to richer and extra fruitful expression then each the Poro and Bondo/Sande Secret Societies, as conventional brokers of this course of ought to take pleasure in a place of the best esteem. By way of these secret societies the nation’s tradition flows from one era to the opposite and the aspirations of society are targeted with intimate and telling persuasion upon the younger. They stand at a degree the place the energies of youngsters are launched into new and inventive prospects. By way of these secret societies youngsters bear in mind the previous actions of their predecessors. They assist in behavioral coaching patterns of society. These societies are establishments of inspiration and each politicians and chiefs use them to benefit. That’s to both achieve or preserve energy. Main and binding choices are taken within the Poro Bush of which solely members are allowed to attend and participate. The Poro Secret Society acts as a test in opposition to the abuse of energy. In disaster ridden conditions main resolution are taken within the Poro Bush. The Poro society even acts as arbitrator in chiefdom disputes and will promulgate basic legal guidelines and regulate buying and selling practices. Additionally it is concerned within the burial of chiefs and different necessary native officers (Alie, 1990).Western training has existed within the nation for lengthy and is now so integral a part of the civilized life that there’s a tendency to imagine that it’s the essential or sole technique of imparting expertise, information and social values in youngsters. This isn’t the case in Sierra Leone. The significance of the Poro and Bondo conventional secret societies can’t be over-sighted due to their monumental potentiality in educating youngsters for all times in society. Basic is that respect for individuals as individuals is the idea of conventional society. Linked with that is courtesy, sensitivity to the wants of others, cooperativeness, self-discipline, ethical and bodily braveness, arduous work and excessive requirements of accomplishment. These are handed on to youngsters within the surroundings wherein they’re a part of their every day experiences. However, these conventional establishments as brokers of training are presently confronted with many challenges there-by forcing their demise. The follow of feminine genital circumcision is of worldwide concern and in Sierra Leone individuals are agitating for its whole ban. Presently women are allowed to be circumcised at age eighteen throughout which era a toddler is perceived to be matured sufficient to decide on whether or not or to not be initiated into the Bondo/Sande secret society. As well as the interval of initiation is perceived too lengthy and is being challenged. Apart from youngsters today now not need to be initiated into these societies to be taught learn how to be clear, cook dinner, rear youngsters, follow agriculture, and inculcate morals and virtues to quote a number of examples. All these might be learnt both in or outdoors formal education via studying. What’s extra Faith, particularly Christianity and Islam, western life, in addition to rural-urban migration are forcing these secret societies to obliteration.Apart from the actions and work of those conventional societies aren’t in curriculum type and documented. Neither is also the usage of herbs documented. Subsequently by discontinuing these conventional secret societies Sierra Leoneans stand to lose their cultural heritage. If nonetheless, training has the important operate of perpetuating the traditions and values of society, of adapting them to a altering surroundings, and of elevating them to a richer and extra fruitful expression then these conventional secret societies, as brokers of this course of ought to take pleasure in a place of the best esteem. By way of these societies the nationwide tradition flows from one era to a different and the aspirations of society are targeted with intimate and telling persuasion upon the younger. These secret societies stand on the level the place the energies of youngsters are launched into new and inventive prospects.